skip to main content

Riley Surface World uses cookies to give you the best experience on our website. If you continue we assume that you consent to receive cookies on our website. Read More

X
Machines & equipment for sale

Common Applications of Heat Treatments

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is a controlled process of heating and cooling material in order to improve its properties, performance, and strength. In this manufacturing process, a metal is altered by heating and cooling cycles under different thermal boundary conditions and wide temperature ranges. Most metals and alloys are in some way heated, and their importance is seen in many products in the aerospace, automotive, construction, agriculture, consumer goods, and mining industries. There are three main steps in the heat treatment process, which include heating the metal to a specific temperature, soaking or maintaining the specific temperature for a certain amount of time, and cooling to a suitable rate following prescribed methods. There are seven main techniques used for the heat treatment of materials, they are:

  1. Normalising
  2. Annealing
  3. Tempering
  4. Hardening
  5. Ageing
  6. Stress Relieving
  7. Carburisation

Normalising

Normalizing heat treatment helps remove impurities and improve metal´s ductility and toughness after it has been exposed to thermal or mechanical hardening processes. During this process, the material is heated to 750 °C -980 °C, and it is then cooled back to room temperature by exposing it to room temperature air after being heated.

Normalising causes microstructures to reform into more ductile structures. This is important because it makes the metal more formable, machinable, and reduces residual stresses in the material that could lead to unexpected failure.

Annealing

Annealing is a heat treatment process that is used to increase the ductility and reduce the hardness of a material. Annealing is often performed after material has undergone a hardening or cold working process to prevent it from brittle failure or to make it more formable for subsequent operations.

Depending on the alloy, the temperature ranges from 260 °C to 760 °C. Annealing changes the physical and chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness. For more insights, our Annealing Article is very useful.

Tempering

Tempering is a heat treatment process that consists of reheating hardened steel to a temperature below the lower critical temperature in order to decrease its hardness, improve its toughness, and remove internal stresses caused by the rapid cooling of steel. 

There are three types of temperatures used in the tempering process: low temperature 100°C -200°C, medium temperature 200°C to 500°C and high temperature 500°C to 700°C. For more information on tempering please refer to our Tempering Article.

Hardening

The hardening process consists of heating the material above the critical point, followed by rapid cooling, usually from 800-900°C; it is the most common heat treatment process of all.

The material can be cooled rapidly in air, water, oil or others. The rapid cooling process is known as quenching- applied to stainless and high-alloy steels.

The use of metal hardening results in an improvement of the metal´s mechanical properties, and its hardness, making it more durable and tougher.

Ageing

Also called precipitation hardening, ageing is a heat treatment method used mostly to increase the yield strength of malleable metals. The process produces uniformly dispersed particles within a metal´s grain structure which bring about changes in properties.

Ageing usually comes after another heat treatment process that reaches higher temperature- ageing only elevates the temperature to medium levels and brings it down quickly (95°-205°C).

Properties of ageing include high tensile strength and hardness, improves wear resistance, allows for easy machinability of material, and allows for little to no distortion of the component.

Stress Relieving

Stress relieving heat treatment is intended to remove internal residual stresses generated by prior manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, and cold rolling.

Without a stress relieving process, subsequent processing may give rise to distortions or stress corrosion cracking.

Stress relieving does not produce significant changes in material structures or mechanical properties, and is therefore normally restricted to relatively low temperatures (between 550°C and 650°C).

Carburisation

Carburisation is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-rich gas atmosphere.  The process of heating a metal component in a high carbon environment allows for the diffusion of carbon atoms directly into the surface of the part that needs to be case hardened.

The carburizing temperature varies between 870 °C and 940°C. The amount of carbon and resultant case depth that gets diffused into the metal surface depends on the carbon potential of the atmosphere, the temperature at which it is heated and the time it is exposed to that temperature.

Longer carburizing cycle times, higher temperatures, and higher carbon potentials will increase the amount of carbon diffused into the surface and the depth of the case.

Brand New
Superior Laboratory Oven (100 litre)
More Images Available

Riley 300°C Superior Laboratory Oven Range

A range of vertical ovens from 50-240 litres that operate at up to 300°C. Ovens are lined with a stainless steel chamber and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW060
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
Riley GPS-OV Full Range
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
From 50-240 litres
Max Temp
300°C
Other Info
British Made
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Laboratory Oven Range with Aluminised Steel Chamber (240 litre model)
More Images Available

Riley 250°C Laboratory Oven Range

A range of vertical ovens from 30-350 litres that operate at up to 250°C. Ovens are lined with a aluminised clad steel chamber and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW061
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
Riley GP-OV Full Range
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
From 30-350 litres
Max Temp
250°C
Other Info
British Made
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Heavy Duty Oven Range (350 litre model)
More Images Available

Riley 300°C Heavy Duty Vertical Oven Range

A range of heavy duty ovens from 200-1000 litres that operate at up to 300°C. Ovens are lined with a stainless steel chamber and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW062
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
Riley HDV-OV Full Range
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
200 - 1000 litres
Max Temp
300°C
Other Info
British Made
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Heavy Duty Horizontal Oven Range with stainless steel interior
More Images Available

Riley 300°C Heavy Duty Horizontal Oven Range

A range of horizontal heavy duty horizontal ovens with twin doors that operate at up to 300°C. Ovens are lined with a stainless steel chamber and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW063
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
Riley HDH-OV Range
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
425 litres
Max Temp
300°C
Other Info
British Made
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 300°C Industrial Oven (970/300 model shown)
More Images Available

SNOL 350°C Industrial Oven Range

350°C general purpose batch ovens, ideal for a vast range of low temperature thermal processes such as drying, curing and pre-heating.

Stock No
NEW070
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
SNOL
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
350°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 650°C High Temperature Oven Range (970/600 shown)
More Images Available

SNOL 650°C High Temperature Oven Range

General purpose high temperature, industrial, batch ovens which set the standard for a wide range of industrial processing applications

Stock No
NEW071
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
SNOL
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
650°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 650°C High Temperature Oven with Powered Door
Video Available

SNOL 650°C High Temperature Oven with Powered Door

General purpose high temperature, industrial, batch oven suitable for a wide range of industrial processing applications. Includes a vertical powered door.

Stock No
NEW072
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
SNOL
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
600 x 750 x 900
Max Temp
650°C
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 1100°C & 1300°C Tool Room Muffle Furnace Range (39/1100 LHM01 shown)
More Images Available

SNOL 1100°C - 1300°C Muffle Furnace Range

The economical muffle furnace is designed for general workshop and laboratory heat treatments up to 1300°C and up to 39 litres.

Stock No
NEW073
Category
Tool Room & Bench Top Furnaces
Model
SNOL LHM01
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
1100°C, 1300°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 1100°C - 1300°C Chamber Furnace Range - 40/1200 LSF01
Video Available

SNOL 1100°C - 1300°C Chamber Furnace Range

SNOL's LSF01 is a compact laboratory furnace, suitable for applications in the laboratory or light industry setting, especially when multiple or larger test samples are required.

Stock No
NEW074
Category
Tool Room & Bench Top Furnaces
Model
SNOL LSF01
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
1100°C, 1200°C, 1300°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
SNOL 300°C Laboratory Oven Range with Viewing Window (120/300 shown)
Video Available

SNOL 300°C Laboratory Oven Range

A range of laboratory ovens 120-420 litres that operate at up to 300°C. Ovens are lined with a stainless steel chamber and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW075
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
SNOL LSN11
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
300°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
300°C Laboratory Oven Range - All Stainless Steel (220/300 LSN ST shown)
More Images Available

SNOL 300°C Laboratory Oven Range - All Stainless Steel

A range of laboratory ovens 120-420 litres that operate at up to 300°C. Ovens are lined with a stainless steel chamber, clad with stainless steel panels and include a fan and digital controls.

Stock No
NEW076
Category
Laboratory & Bench Top Ovens
Model
SNOL LSN11 ST
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
300°C
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Custom Built Oven for Tier 1 Automotive Manufacturer
More Images Available

SNOL Custom Build Furnaces & Ovens

Custom built ovens and furnaces to meet your project requirements and standards.

Stock No
NEW079
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
SNOL
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Romer 225°C Industrial Oven (1.5 x 1.2 x 2.0 model shown)
Video Available

Romer 200°C Industrial Oven Range

200°C general purpose, electric, batch ovens from 3.4m3 upwards. Ideal for a vast range of low temperature thermal processes such as drying, curing and pre-heating.

Stock No
NEW080
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
Romer SLS-O
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
200°C
Other Info
Touchscreen HMI Control
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Romer 225°C Convection Industrial Oven Range (1.5m x 1.5m x 1.5m model shown)
More Images Available

Romer 200°C Convection Industrial Oven Range

200°C electric, batch ovens from 3.4m3 upwards. Without a fan' these ovens are a very cost effective option or ideal for delicate processes that cannot tolerate air movement.

Stock No
NEW081
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
Romer SLS
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
200°C
Other Info
Radiant heating
Condition
Brand New
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000
Brand New
Romer Essential Electric Oven Range (1.5 x 1.2 x 2m model shown)
More Images Available

Romer Essential Electric Oven Range

200°C general purpose, electric, industrial ovens from 3.4m3 upwards. Ideal for a vast range of low temperature thermal processes such as drying, curing and pre-heating. The Essential range is a cost effective solution where temperature recording is not required.

Stock No
NEW082
Category
Industrial Ovens
Model
Romer
Internal Size (WxDxH mm) [?]
Various
Max Temp
200°C
Condition
Brand New, Excellent Condition, Unused, Current Model
Availability:
Available subject to build time
Price [?]
Please call on +44 (0) 1922 45 8000